About Us: History

These HISTORICAL RECOLLECTIONS chronicle significant activities and events in the history of The Academy, and demonstrate commitment to serve the profession and the public throughout the year.*

Click the years to the left to learn more about the Academy's rich history.


On June 22, eight doctors met to discuss forming a medical society in the city. A constitution and by-laws was drafted and approved at a September meeting.


In accord with the AMA ethical code prohibiting the advertising of physician services, Dr. D. B. Sturgeon was voted out of the Toledo Medical Association for an insert in The Live Yankee announcing establishment of the 'Toledo Medical and Surgical Institute'.


The Toledo Medical Association accepted the group's first woman member, Dr. Elizabeth Woods.


Concerns about the safety of the water supply in Toledo, particularly in relation to the city's sewage system, prompted the Association to pass a resolution objecting to a change in the route of the city's water supply in order to wash away sewage collecting in Swan Creek near the county infirmary.


The Toledo Medical Association supported passage of the Musgrove Medical Bill before the Ohio General Assembly, requiring all physicians to register with the Board of Registration and Examination, and show credentials of a medical diploma. A committee was appointed to assist in State enforcement.


The Joint Committee of the Lucas County and Toledo Medical Societies adopted a resolution to merge their identities and form a new association under the name of The Academy of Medicine of Toledo and Lucas County.


The Toledo Medical Association and the Lucas County Medical Society consolidated to form The Academy of Medicine of Toledo and Lucas County. At the age of 23, Dr. Julius H. Jacobson was elected the first president. Sadly, in 1919, he was stricken by the flu, and died at the age of 39 in New York City.


An editorial, "The Anti-Tuberculosis Crusade," in the Toledo Medical and Surgical Reporter, decried the number of deaths, family dissolutions and high economic costs of tuberculosis. The Academy advocated a city ordinance prohibiting spitting in public, as a control measure.


The Academy of Medicine's 'Milk Committee,' established in 1907, supported passage of a new city law requiring all cans of milk to be sealed during shipping.


The Academy initiated a new publication, the Bulletin of The Academy of Medicine of Toledo and Lucas County, "... devoted to the advancement of medical science, prophylaxis, and all things in which MEDICINE is interested."

The Toledo State Hospital on Arlington Avenue (1888), the first asylum in the country built on the cottage system, treated over 1800 inpatients and employed a staff of 235. The Academy Bulletin addressed the philosophy of the hospital toward its patients: "To many the subject of caring for the insane is ... a mystery. The secret of their care and keeping them contented is to have them lead as normal a life as possible, with good, clean, healthy surroundings, plenty of nourishing food and fresh air."


Academy members were successful in efforts to get an emergency hospital and laboratory for the control of communicable diseases (notably venereal disease), and the city opened a two-story facility at Superior and Lafayette Streets.


The Academy purchased the former Hurd Club property at Monroe and 15th Streets as a location for The Academy.


In opposition to government measures to control the medical profession, The Academy members passed a resolution insisting that local and state medical association and AMA officers oppose efforts for mandatory health insurance, state takeover of medicine, and any other effort "attempting to centralize authority and destroy the democracy of those health associations."


The Bulletin announced National Negro Health Week as part of educational efforts aimed at particular groups of high-risk patients.

A Service Bureau, the first such service of a medical society in Ohio, was organized. The bureau operated 24 hours-per-day, and patients unable to locate their doctors called the bureau for assistance.

The first Academy executive secretary (later director), William Burns, was appointed.


The Academy pioneered another educational effort aimed at women - the "Hearty Health for Women Week." Representatives from 22 women's organizations worked with The Academy's Executive Council for a lecture series on maternal and children's health care.


During the presidency of Dr. Edward J. McCormick, The Academy's Education Committee became active and ran a twice-weekly column in the Toledo News-Bee, "to educate the public about medical matters, and therefore hopefully negate the success of quackery medicine hucksters."

At the suggestion of Dr. James A. Duncan, an endowment fund was created to raise funds for medical research in Toledo. It was to be underwritten by members bequeathing life insurance policies to The Academy. A goal of $300,000 was set and Dr. Duncan made the first donation of a $50,000 insurance policy.


The Academy appointed a committee to help form a chapter of the American Heart Association to further the goals for support of research, education and patient care.

A change in governance structure was approved, establishing a Council system for managing Academy policy. Members elected three Council members who served with the eight elected officers and the executive secretary to administer The Academy.


A series of health talks on radio, first started in 1927 by the Education Committee and broadcast on WTAL from the Waldorf Hotel in downtown Toledo, was re-instituted on WSPD radio.


The Academy established a Physicians and Dentists Credit Association to collect on delinquent accounts and furnish credit ratings of patients. It handled only Academy accounts and was available only to Academy members.


An anonymous Academy Bulletin article, "The New Deal - Friend or Foe of the Medical Profession," warned, "the direct relationship between physician and patient will be destroyed in favor of a direct relationship between them through the medium of a third party, viz., the government. Bureaucracy and political meddling will make the practice of medicine a task instead of a joy."


The Papanicolaou method of detecting cervical and uterine cancer was introduced by Dr. E. L. Burns, a pathologist at Mercy Hospital. The Academy sponsored a city-wide effort that resulted in 1500 examinations and discovery of 27 cases of cancer in the first year.


The Academy Defense Committee, under the direction of Dr. Richard Hotz, was asked to provide medical advice in the event of an atomic bombing.


The new Academy of Medicine building at Central and Collingwood, with enlarged library and service bureau facilities, a spacious auditorium, conference rooms and an adequate parking lot was dedicated.

The Academy displayed its first scientific exhibit in the Museum of Science Building at the Toledo Zoo.


Toledo was one of six cities nationwide selected by the American Cancer Society to present a series of 30 weekly, one-hour television programs for medical professionals on detecting, diagnosing and treating cancer. The programs were presented in The Academy's auditorium.


The Academy sponsored eight public health forums held at The University of Toledo. The program, "Live Long and Like It," attracted the highest attendance.


Founding of the Greater Toledo Blood Center of the American Red Cross was the culmination of eight years work for Academy and Red Cross members.


The Foundation Fund of The Academy of Medicine of Toledo and Lucas County was created. The stated purpose: "The income and principal ... shall be used for promoting the technical knowledge and skill of the entire medical profession, and the health and welfare of the general public." The Fund consisted of property and assets of The Academy.


The Academy adopted a policy regarding physicians' telephone listings: "... listing [may] include name, address, office hours and telephone number, as well as type of practice or specialty in recognized medical terminology. Any additional information or the use of bold type will be considered advertising, and as such will constitute unethical practice."

The Well-Oldster Clinic, operated by the Geriatrics Committee and the Toledo Health Department, was started. Its purpose was to monitor persons 65 years of age and older who were in good health, to identify ailments such as arthritis and glaucoma at their earliest stages, and to establish health standards for the aged through routine check-ups.


Through a collaborative effort by the Toledo Academy of Pharmacy, The Academy of Medicine, and their auxiliaries, more than 300,000 children and adults in Lucas County were given Type III Sabin polio vaccine during the month, with no adverse reactions reported.


Persuasive presentations by Dr. Frank F. A. Rawling, President of the Toledo Area Medical College and Education Foundation, and UT President Glenn Carlson achieved introduction of a bill in the Ohio House of Representatives to establish a medical school in Toledo. Bills creating medical schools in Akron and Dayton also were introduced.

In Washington, Drs. Carlson and Rawling met with Department of HEW officials to discuss possible federal funding for a medical school in Toledo. (In September, the U.S. Congress passed a medical assistance bill that provided for paying two-thirds of the building costs for new medical schools.)


A 4500 square-foot addition to The Academy building was opened, providing a large multi-purpose room, a new kitchen, executive offices, a board room and committee rooms; also, a second floor addition to expand the Library.


Under the aegis of the Woman's Auxiliary of The Academy of Medicine, and co-sponsored by the Greater Toledo Nutrition Council and the Toledo Educational Association for the Aged and Chronically Ill, Meals on Wheels was initiated. The program provided delivery of food to shut-ins unable to prepare their own meals. Due to a conflicting registered trademark, the name was changed to Mobile Meals, services extended and a Mobile Market added.


Through the efforts of Dr. John S. Kozy, The Academy's continuing education program for physicians, the Northwestern Ohio Institute for Continuing Medical Education (NWOICME), was awarded a National Institute of Health grant of $71,677 over three years. The grant enabled NWOICME to conduct a 20-county survey of physicians' CME needs, and, in cooperation with MCO and the Regional Program for Heart, Cancer and Stroke, to develop programs in Toledo and throughout the region.

Council approved purchase of a new transparent anatomical model, known as Tam, which became a permanent display at the new Health and Science Theater at the Toledo Zoo.


Three monthly series of six programs, using tapes from the Washington/Alaska Regional Medical program, were sponsored by NWOICME and broadcast by WGTE-TV and WBGU-TV, enabling physicians in seven counties to view the programs at home.

The new Toledo Museum of Health and Natural History opened in the Science Museum of the Toledo Zoo. The Academy Scientific Committee spearheaded its development, working with the Toledo Zoo, the Northwestern Ohio Regional Medical Program, Toledo Board of Education, and the Diocesan Catholic School Board.


The Dial Access Library, funded by the Northwestern Ohio Regional Medical Program, was housed in The Academy Library. The first of its kind in a U.S. metropolitan area, the program provided mini-lectures on 325 subjects for physicians and 130 topics for registered nurses in twenty counties. The 3- to 12-minute tapes were played over the telephone.

A revised constitution and by-laws was adopted, prescribing a two-year term for the president; replacing the Board of Trustees with a Council of 12 members including a five-member Executive Committee; and empowering the president to preside. Five commissions were established to replace the multiplicity of committees.


On April 5, the fifth and present executive director, Lee F. Wealton, began his career at The Academy of Medicine.


Dr. Roland A. Gandy, Jr., was the first African-American physician elected President-Elect of the Academy.

On June 15, the 29 graduates of the first Medical College of Ohio class received their Doctor of Medicine degrees. The class included Dr. Donna A. Woodson, Academy President-Elect.


Dr. Herbert E. Stockard, 2001 Academy President, graduated in the second class of the Medical College of Ohio.


A new monthly communication, Communiqué, was inaugurated to facilitate communication with the membership. News of Council, Commission and Executive Committee actions and decisions, as well as relevant items of interest to members were reported.


The Academy executive office, Service Bureau and Mobile Meals program moved into the Secor Professional Building, 4428 Secor Road.


A program opposing television violence was spearheaded by Academy Auxiliary members Betsy Ford and Bernice Gosling, in coordination with the statewide program on 'Violence in Television.'


Tel-Med, a medical tape library aimed at the community, began as a public service program sponsored by The Academy, St. Luke's Hospital and Blue Cross/Blue Shield.


An Impaired Physician Committee of Lucas County was initiated by The Academy to help identify and counsel physicians suffering from stress, drug and alcohol abuse, or other mental and physical problems that interfered with the competent treatment of patients. It is now the Physician Support Committee.


Physicians from The Academy of Medicine volunteering for medical missions in several countries, e.g., Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Costa Rica, Pakistan, were organized by Dr. James G. Diller to form Midwest Medical Mission.


Academy Med-Assist, a voluntary program to help the unemployed and uninsured in Toledo have access to health care was started. Participating physicians accepted as patients those who had been unemployed or without health insurance since 1981. More than 500 doctors volunteered and the program received an award from the President's Citation Program for Private Sector Initiatives.


A final report of The Academy's Qual-Med Study Group, calling for formation of an HMO in conjunction with Blue Cross of Northwest Ohio and the Physicians' Medical Care Foundation, was accepted by Council. This led to the establishment of Med-Choice, a physician-initiated endeavor to provide comprehensive health care to citizens at reduced costs, with services provided by Northwest Physicians, Inc.


The Academy held its first Mini-Internship program. Five business and community leaders were paired with two specialists and a family physician or internist for two days, to learn firsthand about the modern practice of medicine. The purpose is to give those who play integral roles in decisions on health care a better understanding of the field and its complexities. (The Mini-Internship programs continue, and through the year 2001, 22 programs for 101 interns were conducted.)

The Academy and local hospitals sponsored a seminar on the topic of assisted suicide, focusing on the legal, ethical and medical dilemmas physicians face when patients request help in ending their lives.


Dr. Su-Pa Kang became the first international physician to be elected President-Elect of The Academy.

The Academy supported a targeted health care access program, Ohio Project Elderly Need (OPEN), providing free medical care to needy senior citizens. More than 100 physicians volunteered for the program.


Dr. Murray Howe, assisted by Academy Auxiliary members, developed a local version of a national program called "Tar Wars," aimed at discouraging young people from the smoking habit. He and other physicians visited schools, using chest X-rays and clinical photos to help deliver their message.


A series of quarterly public education forums, "Things We Fear," was sponsored by The Academy's Community Relations and Communications Commission. Informational packets were prepared and distributed at the sessions by Academy Auxiliary members.


The Academy Auxiliary assisted physicians with a bicycle safety program for kindergartners in Toledo Public Schools. A class called "Don't Just Do It - Do It Right" included a video on bike safety and discussion on the importance of wearing bike helmets.


To reflect its changing role and membership, the Auxiliary changed its name to The Academy of Medicine of Toledo and Lucas County Alliance.


Dr. Su-Pa Kang was inaugurated as President of the Ohio State Medical Association, becoming the first international physician to hold the position. Dr. Lance Talmage became President-Elect.

Dr. Donald B. Marshall became the first Osteopathic physician to be elected President-Elect of The Academy.


The Diller Medical Mission Services Foundation was established, to provide a data bank of medical volunteers and services, to develop a central warehouse in cooperation with other humanitarian organizations, and to facilitate distribution of equipment and supplies worldwide.


Dr. Donna A. Woodson, a graduate of the 1972 Charter Class of the Medical College of Ohio, became the first woman President-Elect of The Academy.

* Source: The First 150 Years - A History of The Academy of Medicine of Toledo and Lucas County, 1851-2001, and were compiled by Howard S. Madigan, MD